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Açoita-Cavalo - Luehea divaricata Mart. - This tree species belongs to the MALVACEAE family and was described by the German botanist and researcher Martius in his book from the year 1826 entitled "Nova Genera et Species Plantarum Brasiliensium". This species has a fairly large area extending from the south of the USA to Argentina. In Brazil it is found in several forest formations. The tree reaches a height of up to 25 meters with a trunk diameter of 60 centimeters. Its timber is used for various things, amongst others in the manufacture of furniture. The Açoita-Cavalo is widely used in popular medicine in Brazil as the bark contains anti-inflammatory substances and is suitable in the treatment of rheumatism and inflammations of the throat.

The leaves of this tree are quite hairy on the underside. The flower is white to pink with the flowers of this species melliferous. From this, medicinal honey is produced with expectorant properties. The tree is very robust and can occupy new areas as a pioneer, having the advantage of being able to survive well in dry environments and also in temporarily soaked soils. It is found frequently along rivers, with its planting being therefore recommended in areas of permanent preservation.


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Inhaíba - Denominação científica Lecythis lurida (Miers.) Mori. - This tree species belongs to the LECYTHIDACEAE family. Most members of this family have hard and stable pods fitted with an authentic cap. Within them are the seeds, Brazil nuts being the best known. In Brazil itself, the Inhaíba is found from the region of the Amazon to the state of Minas Gerais in various plant formations.

The Inhaíba reaches a height of up to 18 meters and a trunk diameter of 60 centimeters. The wood is hard and heavy, being suitable for external use, such as poles, posts, stakes and railway railway sleepers. The tree is quite ornamental because of the shape of its canopy and brightness of its leaves. Adapted to dry land, it is therefore recommended for planting in degraded areas and permanent preservation.

It has simple leaves, glabrous from 12 to 16 centimeters in length. The flowers are small and whitish in color. The fruit are indehiscent (relying on mechanisms such as decay or predation to release the contents). It produces large quantities of seeds annually. Their nuts are much appreciated by rodents. Due to their appearance, this species should be included in reforestation for recovery of degraded areas.


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Angelim - Andira fraxinifolia Benth. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The British botanist Bentham described it in 1837 in his work "Commentations de Leguminosarum Generibus 44". The region of natural occurrence of the Angelim is along the Brazilian coast, mainly in the "Mata Atlantica", the Atlantic Forest.

The Angelim reaches a height of 12 meters and has a trunk diameter of up to 40 centimeters. The timber is hard, heavy and has great durability. It is used in civil construction and is also suitable for external use, such as poles, posts, stakes and railway railway sleepers. The tree is very attractive because of the beauty of its canopy and its flowers, being recommended for landscaping.

The violet flowers are very eye-catching. The fruit are fleshy and small, which are eaten by bats. The tree is strongly recommended for reforestation of degraded areas, because besides multiplying easily, it serves as food for bats and other animals.


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Angico Branco - Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan - This tree species belongs to the legume family (FABACEAE). It received its scientific name currently in use in 1955 by Brenan (published in Kew Bulletin 10 (2): 182). It is also widespread in other countries in South America, such as Bolivia and Peru.

The Angico Branco reaches a height of up to 20 meters with a trunk diameter greater than 50 centimeters. The wood is heavy and very hard, being used in civil construction, construction of boats, railway railway sleepers and for other purposes. It produces good quality coal. The bark has tannin and can be used in tanneries. This species produces flowers in abundance, favourable for planting in gardens and parks.

White-colored flowers are pollinated by bees and are melliferous, with optimum quality honey produced. The dried pods open dropping seeds to the ground. Thanks to its rapid growth it is ideal for reforestation. It prefers sandy soils with lots of light, however it resists well in dry environments. It can be found both in pioneer areas and in the dense interior of old woods.


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Angico Vermelho - Parapiptadenia pterosperma (Benth.) Brenan - The Angico Vermelho belongs to the MIMOSACEAE family. The name used here was published by Brenan in the Kew Bulletin (17(2):228) only in 1963. There is a group of very similar species which is called by its Tupí name Angico by the natives and which are roughly distinguished by the colour of their blossoms ? vermelho means red. The tree is native to the south and east of Brazil from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo and to Bahia.

It is one of the most common trees in the southern states of Brazil. The timber is resistant and very hard and used for the construction of houses and ships as well as for joinery. The bark contains tanning substances. It is a decorative tree which is highly suitable for reforestation. It loses its leaves in the unfavourable season and appreciates ample sunlight.

The quality of the soil is of low importance for this species and so you will find this tree also in areas degraded by people. The blossoms are pollinated by bees. The tree produces large quantities of viable seeds annually which are housed in legumes and which open when dry. The seeds can be stored for more than three months before you disseminate them in the semi-shade. After 5-10 days numerous seedling appear which grow rapidly and reach a height of three metres within two years. The Angico Vermelho reaches a maximum height of 20 ? 30 metres.


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Araticum - Annona sp. - This species belongs to the ANNONACEAE family. The name Annona comes from the Taíno language which was spoken in parts of the Caribbean, e.g. on Cuba, in pre-Columbian times. There are about 100 to 150 species in this category. Therefore it is not unusual not to know exactly which species you are dealing with because of the huge tropical variety.

The Annona category is a very interesting one, its species grow in tropical Central and South America. Many of them have edible, very tasty fruit like the custard apple, called Pinha in Brazilian which means pine cone, and the cherimoya. Both fruit have hard, green and spiny skin which is not eaten. The pulp is white with big black seeds. The plants are also used in traditional medicine. The Annona species are shrubs or trees of different sizes depending on the species. The leaves are rough and distinctly venated.

The reproduction is particularly interesting. The blossoms are pollinated by beetles. It is assumed that pollination is very natural. The blossoms are mostly cauliflorous, i.e. they grow directly at the trunk and not, as is usual, on the branches. They are green and relatively big and round with a diameter of 4-5cm.


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Aroeirinha - Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi - This species belongs to the ANACARDIACEAE family. Giuseppe Raddi gave this tree its scientific name (published in Memoria di Matematica e di Fisica della Società Italiana del Scienze Residente in Modena, Parte contenente le Memorie di Fisica); he frequently found that tree round Rio de Janeiro \\\"E comunissimo nei contorni di Rio-Janeiro\\\". Today you find them in southern USA down to Argentina, in Oceania and even on Mauritius.

The reason is mostly that it is a very small species which only grows to about 10m. When it is full of small red berries it is not only appreciated by gardeners but also by birds. The birds spread the seeds. Aroera is from the native Tupí language, the suffix ?inha is typical Brazilian and means ?small?, so it is ?small Aroera?, probably because the small tree adorned with its numerous berries looks very pretty. On Hawaii the ?Christmas berry? is even used for Christmas decoration. The German name is Brazilian pepper, because sometimes the dried, slightly bitter berries are mixed with black, white or green pepper for decoration.

The plant prefers light and humid habitats, but is undemanding and lives on dry soils poor in nutrients. The white blossoms are only about 3mm big and are pollinated by various insects; they grow in panicles. The leaves are pinnate.


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Bacupari - Rheedia gardneriana Planch. et Triana - The species was given its botanical name by two botanists who were friends, J.E. Planchon from France and the Columbian J.J. Triana (Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique, série 4 14: 321. 1860). It belongs to the GUTTIFERAE family which characteristically emits a milky sap when the bark is damaged. Its main habitat are the Amazon rain forests but you would also find it in coastal forests (restingas).

The name Bacupari is native Tupí, a language which spreads from the coast into the Amazon region. Bacupari, however, describes miscellaneous plants. The timber is used for building and carving and the yellow fruit can be eaten, therefore the tree is often planted as a fruit tree. In its natural habitat its fruit are appreciated by many animals above all birds. Although the yellow to orange fruit don´t have much pulp they are very juicy. The plant grows in penumbra and is often found in the inner part of forests. It is a climax species which means it is a typical part of old forests.

When it grows in areas with less shade it bears more fruit and, for example in reforested areas, it already bears fruit as a young tree. The tree grows slowly up to seven metres with a trunk diameter of up to 25cm. The blossoms are yellow and arranged in inflorescences. The leaves are 7-10cm long, 3.5cm wide, smooth and of leathery structure.


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Cajá - Spondias monbim L. - Carl von Linné, who had developed a system for the scientific nomenclature of all living beings, gave the species its name in 1753 (Species Plantarum 1: 371). It belongs to the ANACARDIACEAE family like the mango and the cashew nut, in Brazilian Cajú. The names Cajú and Cajá are both from the Tupí language. The tree grows from Central to South America and was also naturalised in Africa and South-East Asia.

The reason for its widespread appearance lies in the fact that the small fruit are edible and can be used for making ice cream and juice, above all in the north and northeast of Brazil. The species grows in dry as well as in humid habitats. It prospers in full light and can easily be reproduced by seedlings. The tree is sometimes planted as a living fence post giving shade and fruit. The tree is about 20m high and has a rough, grey bark. The trunk and the branches often show clefts and apertures in which many insects, but also birds, live. The timber is occasionally used for building.

The pinnate leaves are 40cm long. The crown is not very dense and admits light to the ground underneath so that useful plants favouring penumbra can be planted there. The white blossoms are small and individually rather inconspicuous, but they are arranged in many loose inflorescences. The orange fruit are 4cm long and egg-shaped with a big stone. They are eaten by many animals, for example turtles.


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Camboatá - Cupania vernalis Cambess. - The Camboatá belongs to the SAPINDACEAE family or soap tree. J. Cambessdes published the botanical name of the species in Flora Brasiliae Meridionalis 1: 387 in 1825 after travelling in south and central Brazil. Camboatá is derived from the native Indian Tupí language. Interestingly there is a fish of the same name which migrates across land through the forest in the dry season, its name means ?migrates through the forest? (=caambo-oatá); the meaning of the tree is unknown. South and central Brazil are the habitat of this species.

The timber can be used for building and carving but it is not weather proof. The tree is often used for planting along roads. It likes full sunlight and bears a lot of fruit which are eaten by birds, the blossoms are appreciated by bees. The species is suitable for reforestation; it prefers humid locations, it can lose its leaves if too dry. It grows in higher regions as well as near the coasts, in quiet forests as well as in locations which are influenced by men. The fruit seem dry from outside until they open and show brownish-black, shiny individual berries. To be precise the pulp is the stem growing over the seeds. The blossoms are inconspicuous, white, small and arranged in inflorescences. The leaves are up to 30cm and pinnate with 5-8cm long individual leaves.

The tree grows to a height of 10-22m and can reach a trunk diameter of more than 70cm. For reproduction one has to bear in mind that the seeds do not keep very long but have to germinate fast. The seedlings generally grow slowly but with sufficient nutrients in the soil they grow faster. The grown tree is heliophyt but the small seedlings only grow in penumbra.


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Canafístula - Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. - The Canafistula belongs to the CAESALPINIACEAE family. Its current scientific name came from P.H.W. Taubert?s influential book ?The natural plant families? (3(3):176) in 1892. The tree mostly grows in the southern half of Brazil, and in most cases, in forests that partially defoliate.

The tree grows rapidly. reaching a height of up to 25 meters and trunk diameter of 70 centimeters. The wood is used for house construction and in joinery. The flowering tree is very attractive because it has numerous bright yellow blooms. The tree leaves fall in the dry season. It is ideal for landscaping and reforestation, helping to preserve the landscape.

Its leaves are also very beautiful and it has beautiful yellow flowers.The fruit are dry and broad in the shape of wings, so that they can be dispersed by the wind. It prefers the sun and does well as a pioneer in disturbed areas. It also grows in ancient forests, preferring moist soils along the rivers. The new seedlings reach a height of five to six meters already by the age of two.


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Castanha do Maranhão - Bombacopsis glabra (Pasq.) A. Rob. - The Maranhão Chestnut is part of the MALVACEAE family, a family of tropical trees that typically feature a smooth, green bark, as in this. It is also called Castanha da Praia because it appears in the coastal forests from Pernambuco in the North to Rio de Janeiro in the South.

This small tree does not exceed 6 meters in height. The wood is light and not very resistant and can therefore be used only for restricted purposes. Due to the green bark and its delicate shape, the tree is quite attractive. In the coastal region these small trees are often planted as living fences, because simply by introducing a branch into the earth this easily develops roots, soon beginning to grow. It is rare to find this species inside woods.

 The bright leaves, dark green in color, are subdivided like a palm, that is, into five small leaves. The light flowers have the shape of a brush and are pollinated by moths or butterflies. The fruit (chesnuts) are edible and taste better when roasted. The fruit open spontaneously on the tree after ripening and dropping the seeds. The trees produce large quantities of seeds each year, feeding many animals in the wild.


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Cedro fissilis - Cedrela fissilis Vell. - This tree species belongs to the MELIACEAE family, as is the case of mahogany. The Brazilian Cedar has no relation of kinship with the conifer tree of the same name. The reason for this name was the aromatic odor of the wood. There are at least two very similar species in Brazil that are called Cedar. This species in question was described in 1825 by the scientist Vellozo in the work "Florae Fluminensis".

Large specimens of Cedar, up to 35 meters high and trunk diameter of 90 cm, can only be found in old forests, forming the forest canopy. The high-value wood is intended for construction of aircraft, boats and houses, including musical instruments and sculptures. The wood of the Brazilian cedar is even suitable for giving an aroma to the famous cachaça, the Brazilian fire-water. Cigar boxes are preferably manufactured with this wood, giving the tobacco an even more regal character.

The leaves are very large and composed. However, the flower is small and unattractive. The marmorized dried fruit (pods) open when ripe, dropping the winged seeds. The tree loses its leaves in the dry season. Young plants also grow in pioneer sites, reaching a height of 3 to 4 meters at two years.


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Cedro odorata - Cedrela odorata L. - This tree species belongs to the MELIACEAE family, as is the case of mahogany. The Brazilian Cedar has no relation of kinship with the conifer tree of the same name. The reason for this name was the aromatic odor of the wood. This useful species was scientifically described in 1759 by Linné (Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 940). New branches of this species give off the scent of garlic when broken. The Cedar is found frequently in the Atlantic Forest and in the Amazon Rainforest. It is also found in other countries of South America.

Large specimens, up to 35 meters high and trunk diameters of 150 centimeters, can only be found in the old forests, forming the forest canopy. The wood is lightweight, soft and easy to work with and has a high commercial value, being considered one of the best woods in Brazil. It is intended for furniture construction, laminates and wooden flooring in general.

The leaves are very large and composite. However, the flower is small and unattractive. The marmorized dry fruit (pods) open when ripe, dropping the winged seeds. The tree loses its leaves in the dry season. Young plants also grow in pioneer sites, reaching a height of 3 to 4 meters at two years.


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Embira-de-sapo - Lonchocarpus sp. - This tree species belongs to the legume family (FABACEAE). The Brazilian name of this species is composed of two parts: Embira comes from the Tupi indigenous language and means trees whose bark seams can easily be separated from the wood. In fact there are some species with the same Brazilian name. The majority belong to the genus Lonchocarpus, the abbreviation sp. means "species", intending to indicate an unknown species of this genus.

Depending on the species, the Embira de Sapo reaches a height of up to 25 meters with a trunk diameter of half a meter. The wood can be used for the construction industry. Trees of this species often grow in areas where man has already cleared and where young vegetation is growing. They are rare to find in old woods. Because it is a rustic and undemanding species in soils, it plays a very important role in reforestation for the recovery of degraded areas.

 When in bloom, the trees are very attractive but the shape of its broad canopies is equally impressive. Being able to reach a height of up to 3.5 meters in just two years, the Embira-de-sapo is part of those fast-growing trees.


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Guapuruvu - Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S. F. Blake - This tree species belongs to the legume family (FABACEAE). The Guapuruvu received its scientific name currently used in 1919 by Blake. He had described it in "Contributions from the United States National Herbarium". Guapuruvu is found in the Atlantic Forest and predominantly in so-called secondary forests, therefore in a vegetation that grows after the initial forest has been cleared.

The Guapuruvu reaches a height of up to 35 meters and with a trunk diameter of 1 meter, forming the forest canopy of the forest along with other species. It reminds one of a palm tree, especially when young, when there is not yet much branching. The bark is clear and with protruding pores. The wood has a very light pink coloration, of very low durability and is usually used in the manufacture of boxes for general use.

The leaves are composed and reach up to 50 centimeters in length. In the dry period they fall and in this period the tree is also in bloom. The flowers, about 2 centimeters in size, are yellow in color, arranged in blooms in the form of bunches, 20 to 30 centimeters long, covering practically the whole canopy of the tree. Young plants grow rapidly, often reaching 8 meters in height after three years. It is one of the fastest growing Brazilian native trees.


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Gonçalo-Alves - Astronium graveolens Jacq. - This tree species belongs to the ANACARDIACEAE family. It was the Dutchman Freiherr von Jacquin who in 1763 gave the scientific name to this species (Enumeratio Systematica Plantarum). The name Gonçalo Alves itself is the name of a man. Who he was, or whether this man ever existed, according to whom the species was named, could not be ascertained. It is found mainly in the region of the Atlantic Forest. In nature the tree appears normally grouped and in dry and stony soil.

The Gonçalo-Alves can reach a height of up to 25 meters and the diameter of the trunk reaches 60 centimeters. The wood of this majestic tree is known because of its attractive color. The sapwood is clear, but the heart of the wood is dark brown with lines that are almost black. This gives the wood a unique appearance and is therefore called "tigerwood" in English. The wood is very heavy, it is also kept outdoors and is highly flexible. Due to the beauty of the wood this tree is mainly intended for the construction of furniture. The tree itself is majestic and is used in tree-planting of large gardens and parks.

The leaves are composed. In the dry period the tree loses its leaves and indeed blooms when the it is completely stripped of leaves. The star-shaped flowers are small and unattractive and are grouped into large blooms. The small dry fruit are scattered by the wind.


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Imbiruçu - Eriotheca pentaphylla (Vell.) A. Robyns - This tree species belongs to the MALVACEAE family. The name Imbiruçu is composed by the word Embira, which means a tree from which the Indians obtain fibers from the bark seams in order to be able to weave ropes; and by the word uçu (or açu), which means great. The name Eriotheca comes from the ancient Greek referring to the hair of the seeds, because the seeds are surrounded by a kind of cotton (Eriotheca = bring cotton). This species only received its current scientific name in 1963 by Robyns in an article in the Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État. It is found in the region of the Atlantic Forest, being frequent in the South of the State of Bahia.

The Imbiruçu reaches a height of 14 meters and a trunk diameter of up to half a meter. This species usually has a straight and cylindrical trunk. The wood is light, soft and of low durability, having little utility. The bark can be used for the manufacture of coarse rope. It is a very beautiful tree, mainly due to the delicate structure of its leaves. It is recommended for landscaping, mainly for tree-planting in streets.

  The leaves are concentrated at the apex of the branches. When it flowers it has a few flowers in white. The growth of the plants in the field is moderate, being able to reach heights of up to 2 meters at two years of age.


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Ingá - Inga sp. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The name Ingá comes from the indigenous language Tupí. Inga also represents the scientific name of the genus. Because this group is very rich in species and can not be easily differentiated, in this case it is unknown what species it is. This has its expression in the abbreviation sp. in the name, which means "species." This species of Ingá is the most widely spread in South America and Central America.

 It reaches a height of up to 15 meters and a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. Its wood has practically no commercial use. It is normally found in areas near rivers and areas that are often wet or flooded. It is also very found along roads.

Its flowers are tubular, white and perfumed. The fruit is edible and the white pulp is sweet and tasty, reminiscent of cotton. The seeds are black and shiny. The tree is very ornamental when in bloom, and can be used in urban tree-planting. It is recommended for reforestation of degraded areas by providing food for wildlife.


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Ingá Cipó - Inga edulis Mart. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). This species was scientifically described by Martius, one of the best known researchers. Ingá is an indigenous word (Tupi). Cipó is from Portuguese language and means "vine" in English, but the tree is no "cipó". This tree must have received its name due to the elongated and twisted fruit with a length of approximately 1 meter and in the shape of a snake, which also is reminiscent of vines or lianas.

The trees of this genus of Ingá can reach more than 20 meters in height and the trunk diameter more than 50 centimeters. Its wood has practically no commercial use. It is found normally in areas near rivers and areas that are often wet or flooded. The Ingá species is also interesting for a particular ecological characteristic: The leaves contain nectar glands (similar to those in flowers that produce nectar).
  
The leaves of the Ingá are composed and have countless small leaves on a thin delicate shaft. Nectar glands have markedly swollen points at the base of the shaft. The flowers are white and brush-shaped, being pollinated by bats or butterflies. The fruit is edible and much appreciated, often sold in outdoor street markets.


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Ingá da Praia - Inga sp. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The name Ingá comes from the indigenous language Tupí and also represents the scientific name of the genus. Because this group is very rich in species and can not be easily differentiated, in this case it is unknown what species it is. This has its expression in the abbreviation sp. in the name, which means "species." Most people refer to the Inga laurina. This species is widely spread in South America.

This species of Ingá reaches a height of up to 20 meters and a trunk diameter of 70 centimeters. It has a leafy canopy and provides tremendous shade. Its wood has practically no commercial use. It is found normally in areas near rivers and areas that are often wet or flooded. The tree also develops in dry environments and in coffee plantations it is often used to provide shade.

The leaves of the Ingá are composed and have countless small leaves on thier fine delicate shaft. The flowers are white and fragrant. The fruits are edible and the white pulp is sweet, reminiscent of cotton. They are much appreciated by wildlife.


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Ipê Amarelo (chry.) - Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. - Ipê is an indigenous name from the Tupi language for a series of trees and vines, known for their abundant flowers. These are species of the BIGNONIACEAE family. In Brazil the species are roughly differentiated by their color. In this species the flowers are yellow and trumpet-shaped. When the trees are in bloom, they shine completely in shades of yellow, as flowering is found completely in the dry season when the trees have only a few leaves. This species is mainly found in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

This species of Ipê does not grow much, reaching 10 meters in height and with a trunk diameter of 40 centimeters. Due to its resistance, the timber is suitable for use in outdoor constructions. By being small in size and very beautiful when in bloom, this tree is widely used for tree-planting in narrow streets and is particularly appreciated for embellishing gardens and parks.

The young branches are lined with dense rust-like hairs. The leaves are subdivided like a palm of the hand, that is, they consist of five small leaves, the middle one being also the largest. Yellow and large flowers are typically visited by bees. The fruit are longitudinal and dry and, when ripe, release a large amount of small winged seeds. The plants grow fast, reaching 3.5 meters in height at two years.


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Ipê Branco - Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridl.) Sand. - This tree species belongs to the BIGNONIACEAE family. The name Ipê comes from the Tupi indigenous language, meaning a group of trees that draws attention to its abundant flowers. This species of Ipê has white flowers as the name already indicates. It is found in almost all of Brazil, from the Tropical Rainforests of the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. It is also found in dry areas, in the Cerrados in Central and Southern Brazil to the Caatinga or shrublands in the northeast, an area known for its aridity, often extreme and with dry, stony ground.

The tree reaches a height of 16 meters and a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. The wood is suitable to be used in construction. Because it is small in size and very beautiful when in flower, flowering more than once a year, this tree is widely used for tree-planting of streets and is particularly appreciated for embellishing gardens and parks. This species of Ipê is perhaps the one with the most eye-catching flowering, but the splendor lasts only about two days.

The leaves are trifoliolate and form a dense foliage of blue-green color. The large, trumpet-shaped white flowers are typically visited by bees. The fruit are longitudinal and dry, and when ripe, release a large amount of small winged seeds, which are dispersed by the wind. The plants grow very fast, reaching 3.5 meters in height at two years.


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Ipê Felpudo - Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bur. - The Ipê Felpudo belongs to the BIGNONIACEAE family. It received its name in 1893 by Bureau in the magazine Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn. This species is known in the sawmills as Ipê Tobacco. In Brazil it is found naturally along the coast of the Atlantic Forest, predominantly in the Southeast.

The tree reaches a height of 20 meters and has a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. The wood is used in construction, in internal works and in the manufacture of tool cables. Its bark has deep longitudinal cracks. Because it is a tropical tree, this bark is particularly thick, about 5 centimeters and in this way protects the tree against fires. It is a very ornamental tree and is recommended for landscaping.

The dark-brown flowers of this species are grouped in panicle shaped blooms. Its characteristic color is the reason for the attribution of the cognate Tobacco. They provide a beautiful contrast to the new light green leaves. The flowers are pollinated by bees. The leaves are like hands, consisting, therefore, of five small leaves starting from a point, with each of up to 25 centimeters in length. The leaves are hairy and fluffy, which give rise to its name.


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Ipê Roxo (avell.) - Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. - This tree species belongs to the BIGNONIACEAE family. The trees named Ipê in the indigenous Tupí language constitute a very large group, including the name Ipê Roxo, which is used for at least two species. In Brazil this species is found mainly in the Atlantic Coast from Maranhão to Rio Grande do Sul.

The tree reaches an imposing height of 35 meters, with a trunk diameter of up to 80 centimeters. Together with other large trees it forms the forest canopy. The wood is particularly heavy and difficult to saw. Even under difficult conditions the wood is very resistant. Therefore it can be used for various purposes, even for shipbuilding and decorative objects. Parts of the tree are also used for medicinal purposes.

The tree is extremely beautiful when in bloom and is ideal for landscaping, being the species of Ipê most used to embellish streets and parks. Also very suitable in reforestation, for long-term maintenance of degraded areas. In most cases they occur sporadically, growing in both well-conserved virgin forests and disturbed areas. The tree blossoms when it is almost completely stripped of leaves, and the pink to lilac flowers form a spectacle of nature.


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Ipê Roxo (hept.) - Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Tol. - This tree species belongs to the BIGNONIACEAE family. The trees named Ipê in the indigenous Tupí language constitute a very large group, including the name Ipê Roxo, which is used for at least two species. In Brazil this species is found mainly in the Atlantic Coast from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul.

This species of Ipê reaches height of up to 20 meters and with a trunk diameter of 80 centimeters. Its wood is heavy and very hard. It is extremely durable even under very difficult conditions. It can be used for house construction, bridges and boats. Parts of the tree are also used for medicinal purposes. This species is popular and used for landscaping and the tree-planting of streets and parks. It is also ideal for reforestation with the objective of recovering degraded areas in a long-lasting way.

The flowering tree forms an incredible spectacle of nature. It blooms after its complete defoliation, completely covered by flowers in this period in purple to pink. The flowers are trumpet shaped, grouped in bunches and pollinated by bees. The leaves are subdivided into seven small leaves, which give the name to this species. The fast-growing young plants reach 3 meters in height within two years.


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Ipê Verde - Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart.) Mart - The Ipê Verde is part of the BIGNONIACEAE family. Martius described it in 1843 in his book Systema Materiae Medicae Vegetabilis Brasiliensis (66). This species has been used in medicine for a long time. It is found in many countries in South America, for example in Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. In Brazil, it is found in several forest formations.

The tree reaches a height of approximately 12 meters and has a trunk diameter of up to 40 centimeters. The wood is not as heavy as that of other species of Ipê and also not as resistant. Therefore, it is easier to work to manufacture objects used or stored indoors. This beautiful tree is planted along roads and used first of all for reforestation. As a pioneer this tree is ideal for this purpose, developing well in dry environments.

The flowers of this species of Ipê are not eye-catching and beautiful like the others. They are trumpet shaped and have a greenish color with the color of the flower giving it its name to this species. The smooth and bright leaves are shaped like a hand. Young plants are slow growing, reaching after two years, at most some 2.5 meters high.


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Itapicuru - Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. - The Itapicuru belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). It was scientifically described in 1892 by Taubert in the magazine called Flora (75: 77, p.3). It is the only species of the genus. The Brazilian name presumably comes from the Tupi indigenous language. Itá means stone, apé is the bark and curu means irregular, rough. All together, it should refer to the structure of the bark. The tree is found in several forest formations in Brazil.

The tree reaches a height of up to 25 meters and has a trunk diameter of 90cm. The wood is very heavy, hard and resistant. It has great durability, even when exposed to unfavorable conditions. For this reason it is used in all types of construction, mainly in external works. Thanks to its characteristics as a pioneer and its adaptation to dry environments this tree is suitable for reforestation. It is even found in the Caatinga, the shrublands, in a particularly dry landscape.

The flowers are fragrant and white in color, with red spots. The leaves are intensely green in color and glow on both sides. The fruits are dried pods, containing 1 to 2 seeds. The development of plants in the field is moderate.


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Jacarandá da Bahia - Dalbergia nigra (Vell.) Allemao ex Benth. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). In Brazil, it is usually called the Jacaranda, but it also has many other names and there are other species with the name of Jacaranda. This species has been known commercially for more than 300 years. Abroad it is called Brazilian rose wood and palissandre. In Brazil this species is mainly found on the Atlantic Coast from Bahia to the state of São Paulo.

 The Jacaranda of Bahia reaches a height of 25 meters and trunk diameter of up to 80 centimeters. The wood is very decorative and very resistant, being used worldwide for the manufacture of pianos and luxury furniture. It is also used for internal finishings in civil construction. It is the most valuable timber species in Brazil. The wood also has an essential oil with a very pleasant smell. The tree is quite ornamental, mainly for its foliage and for the canopy.

The flowers are scented and yellowish-white in color, being fertilized by bees and several small insects. Because it is a pioneer tree, rustic and adapted to dry land, associated with the landscape character, its planting is recommended in recovery of degraded areas. The seedlings have slow growth in the field.


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Jacarandá de Minas - Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. - The Jacarandá de Minas belongs to the BIGNONIACEAE family. This species was detected for science in 1841 by Martius (Flora 24 (2 Beibl.): 51). In the Brazilian language this species is often called Jacarandá, but also has other names and other species with the name of Jacaranda. It is native to the southern half of Brazil.

The tree is small in size, reaching a height of approximately 10 meters, with a trunk diameter of up to 40 centimeters. The wood is light and soft and is great for carpentry, but is only conserved in dry environments. The tree is very beautiful, especially when it is in bloom. For this reason it is often used in landscaping. As a pioneer tree, rustic and adapted to dry land, it is recommended to plant it in recovery of degraded areas.

Nowadays the species is planted world-wide in many tropical countries, because of having blue or violet flowers particularly eye-catchung in the form of a trumpet. Its leaves are similar to a fern leaf. The disc-shaped seed has around it a thin, translucent wing that attracts attention. Young plants grow fast, reaching 3 meters in heigh at two years of age.


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Janauba - Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Wood. - This species belongs to the family APOCYNACEAE. The members of this family have a lactose juice, often poisonous. But in small doses it has therapeutic powers. The name Janauba comes from the indigenous Tupi language and probably refers to its lactose juice. The natural occurrence of this species in Brazil is in the Amazon Forest and the Atlantic Forest, mainly in the state of Bahia.

The Janaúba reaches a height of up to 16 meters and has a trunk diameter of 40 centimeters. Its canopy is usually pyramidal and narrow. The wood is soft and easy to work, but not very durable. It is used for internal construction works, also in the manufacture of boxes, toys and tool cables. This species is found both in areas that remain flooded for much of the year, called floodplains, and in areas that remain relatively dry.

The few white flowers that occur during flowering are very fragrant. When ripe, the fruit containing many seeds open up, and are dispersed by the wind. It can be found inside forests, as well as in open places, for example, on the edges of forests where there is plenty of light.


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Jatobá - Hymenaea courbaril L. - The species, which belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE), was named back in 1753 by Linné in his famous book Species Plantarum. The species belongs to the CAESALPINIACEAE family or leguminouse. The native Tupí name designates a hard fruit or a tree, respectively, bearing such fruit. The Jatobá is found in several states, mainly in the east of the country along the Atlantic coast, from Maranhão to Paraná.

The Jatobá reaches a height of up to 20 meters with a trunk diameter of 1 meter. This exquisite heavy and hard wood is used for the manufacture of furniture, sports equipment, tool cables and for several other purposes. Parts of the tree are widely used in folk medicine, to combat various sicknesses. The "wine of the jatobá"is extracted from the bark, much appreciated by those living in the countryside.

The small white flowers are in blooms in the extremities and are melíferas. The fruit has large dry bark, containing the seeds in a very nutritious mealy mass, consumed by both man and animals. This species is also ideal for reforestation with the aim of recovering degraded areas as a source of food for wild animals.


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Jenipapo - Genipa americana L. - The Jenipapo belongs to the RUBIACEAE family. The species was described by Linné as early as 1759 in the Systema Naturae (Editio Decima 2: 931). Designated by the Indians in the Tupí language as Jenipapo, it plays an important role in the culture of indiginous peoples in Brazil as a food and also for the manufacture of dye with which the body is painted. The meaning of his name is fruit of the ends that produce juice. It is found in practically the whole of Brazil.

This tree reaches a height of up to 15 meters with a trunk diameter of 60 centimeters. This medium-heavy wood is used for various purposes, amongst others for house construction and carpentry. This species itself is much appreciated to produce sweets and liqueurs, being indispensable during the juninas celebrations in the Northeast of Brazil. Planted for harvesting its fruits, this species is also ideal for reforestation with the purpose of recovering degraded areas as a source of food for wild animals, fish and birds.

The round fruits of grayish brown color have a fleshy pulp and very succulent. Parts of the tree are widely used in folk medicine to combat various diseases. At two years, the Jenipapo can reach a height of approximately 2 meters. The production of fruit begins after 5 years.


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Jequitibá - Cariniana legalis (Mart.) Kuntze - The Jequitibá belongs to the LECYTHIDACEAE family. It was Kuntze who, in 1898, gave this species its scientific name (Revisio Generum Plantarum). The most famous representative of this family is probably the Brazilian Chestnut. The nuts, that is, the seeds, are found in a capsule that has an authentic lid. The Jequitibá ree itself is found in several Brazilian states, mainly in the east and northeast of the country along the Atlantic coast.

This tree is one of the largest in Brazil, reaching heights of up to 50 meters and a trunk diameter of 1 meter. Some specimens reach an impressive trunk diameter of up to 4 meters. Together with other large trees, it forms the forest canopy. The Jequitibá is a lush tree and much used in landscaping to plant trees in parks and squares. Its wood is light and suitable for the construction, manufacture of furniture and household objects.

The bark is used in popular folk medicine to fight various diseases. The fruit and seeds serve as food for several animals, mainly monkeys. The seeds themselves are winged and scattered by the wind. This magnificent tree is perfect for planting when reforestation takes place with the aim of recovering degraded areas. At two years of age the new trees reach a height of 3.5 meters.


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Leiteiro - Peschiera fuchsiaefolia (A.DC.) Miers - The Leiteiro, which in Portuguese means milkman, belongs to the APOCYNACEAE family, which often produce a lot of lactose juice. The Leiteiro is mainly found in the South of Brazil, in several forest formations. It multiplies rapidly from shoots in the roots. Because of this detail, it becomes an infesting species in many pastures.

The trees of this species are of small in size, able to reach 6 meters in height and a trunk diameter of 30 centimeters. The wood is light and soft, being used for planking in general. Because of its small size, the tree is great for landscaping in cities. The trees keep their leaves throughout the year, preferring sunny locations and are typical pioneers, also imposing themselves in unfavorable environments.

The white flowers have a rotation symmetry similar to a propeller. The fruit have a rough surface and when ripe, open. Every year this species produces fruit in abundance. Wild birds of various species love this tree because they like to eat the red parts of the fruit. Therefore, this tree is very suitable for reforestation, with the objective of recovering degraded areas. The seedlings grow rapidly, reaching up to 3.5 meters in height at two years of age.


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Louro - Cordia trichotoma (Vell.) Arab. ex Steud. - This tree species belongs to the BORAGINACEAE family. The Portuguese name Louro, in fact, means laurel or Bay tree, having received its scientific name in 1840 from Arrábida and Steudel in "Nomenclator Botanicus" (ed. 2 419). This species is found throughout the region that includes the Mata Atlantica (Atlantic Forest), from Ceará in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. It is also found in the Cerrado.

This tree reaches a height of up to 30 meters and a trunk diameter of 90 cm. Together with other large trees it forms the forest canopy. The wood is of high commercial value because it is moderately heavy, hard, tough and easy to work with. It is suitable for the manufacture of luxury furniture, decorative coatings and for the production of veneer wood.

The Louro is one of the most common pioneer forest species in any area in environmental recovery. It is also used for tree-planting of streets. The leaves are oval and pointed while the flowers are white, small and found in dense blooms. Every year the tree produces large quantities of seeds that are dispersed by the wind. The seedlings grow rapidly, reaching up to 3.5 meters in height at two years of age.


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Massaranduba - Manilkara salzmannii (DC.) Lam. - The Massaranduba belongs to the scientific familiy SAPOTACEAE, whose plants of this family often produce a lot of lactose juice. This species is found along the Atlantic coast, from the state of Pará to Rio de Janeiro.

 This tree reaches a height of up to 25 meters and its trunk a diameter of 70 centimeters. It has a thick bark of dark gray color. The wood is reddish and darkens after being cut. It is a very heavy wood, hard and of high mechanical resistance. It is also weather resistant, therefore good for civil constructions. It is suitable for external use, such as posts, poles, stakes and railway sleepers.

The flowers are white to cream in color and are fragrant. The fruit are round and have a sweet and edible pulp. Monkeys and birds feed on the fruit and become important disseminators of their seeds. Therefore, this tree is very suitable for reforestation, with the objective of recovering degraded areas, serving as food for birds. The seedlings have moderate growth after planting.


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Mutamba - Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. - This tree species belongs to the MALVACEAE family. It is found in almost all of Brazil in diverse forest formations. It is also found several South American countries. The fruit of this species remain for a long time in the tree after maturation, serving as food for several animals.

 The Mutamba reaches a height of up to 16 meters and a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. The wood is light, soft and with good durability when protected from the elements. It is suitable for interior construction and also for carpentry and boxes. The wood also produces excellent quality coal that can be used to make gunpowder, while rope is produced from the bark. The crown of this tree is also rather beautiful and produces great shade, and is therefore used in landscaping.

Its leaves are simple, pointy, asymmetrical and have hairs on both sides. Dried fruits are part of the preferred diet of monkeys and other animals. Therefore, this tree is very suitable for reforestation, with the objective of recovering degraded areas, serving as food for wild animals. The seedlings have a rapid growth after planting


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Oiti - Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch - This species belongs to the CHRYSOBALANACEAE family. The Oiti is traditionally found in the Mata Atlantica or Atlantic Forest, from the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, to Pernambuco. Even in these regions their occurrence is irregular and discontinuous.

 The Oiti reaches a height of up to 15 meters and a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. The wood is heavy, hard and long lasting. It can be used for various purposes, such as for construction and also for boats. It is suitable for external use, such as poles, posts, stakes and railway railway sleepers. It has a leafy canopy and perennial foliage. It produces excellent shade and is therefore used in landscaping. It is often found in squares and gardens. Its planting is not recommended for tree-planting in parking lots, because its fruit, when they fall, usually damage vehicles.

The leaves are elongated, wavy, have a shiny surface and a shape similar to that of bay leaves used as a condiment. The fruit have a shape similar to the fruit of the mango tree, but are much smaller, not exceeding 10 centimeters in length. It produces a large amount of fruit annually, which are edible and highly sought after by fauna in general. For all of these, this species should not be missing from any reforestation program, with the objective of recovering degraded areas.


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Pau Brasil - Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - This species belongs to the leguminous family CAESALPINIACEAE. The story of the Pau Brasil is closely linked with the history of its homeland. Pau Brasil was used for the extraction of a red dye. Brazil, at that time, was still the "Land of Vera Cruz". After a short time, trade with Pau Brasil represented the most important economic activity of exploration of the colony, and the name Terra do Pau Brasil or simply Brazil gained status. The history of Brazil began, right away, with the massive destruction of its forests. Currently, Pau Brasil is threatened with extinction.

This tree reaches a height of up to 15 meters and a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. However, there is historical literature according to which the trees used to reach 30 meters in height. Its trunk and branches are prickly. The wood is very hard, heavy and durable. It is used for the construction of bows for violin and other exquisite objects, which is currently difficult due to the lack of trees. Because of its historical value and beauty of its flowers it is widely used in landscaping.

The flowers are yellow with the red center. The fruits are bristling pods with a length of approximately 7 centimeters, containing some seeds. Young plants have slow growth. Also recommended for the recovery of degraded areas for being an endangered species.


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Pau Ferro - Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. leiostachya Benth. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). Ferrea is Latin and means "in iron", because dark brown wood is very heavy. Pau Ferro is different from many other species of its family, because it has no thorns. It is traditionally found in the Atlantic Forest, from the states of Piauí to Rio de Janeiro.

The Pau Ferro reaches a height of 30 meters and a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. Together with other large trees, it forms the forest canopy. It has a characteristic smooth bark that peels off. As in the Plantain, the fallen bark leave clear white areas on the trunk. Its wood is very heavy, hard, hard to work with and has long durability. It is normally used in construction. The tree is really quite attractive and lends itself to tree-planting in cities. Its planting is not recommended in areas of a lot of movement, because its branches break easily with the wind.

Parts of the tree are widely used in popular folk medicine to fight various diseases. The flowers are yellow while the fruit has very hard brown dried husks and for removing seeds, a hammer is needed. The new trees grow rapidly and are recommended for planting in reforestation for recovery of degraded areas.


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Pau Pombo - Tapirira guianensis Aubl. - This species is widespread in South America and belongs to the ANACARDIACEAE family, along with the Mango. In 1775 Jean Baptiste Aublet gave the scientific name to Pau Pombo in his work: "Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise". The Pau Pombo is found throughout Brazil, always preferring wet lands.

It reaches a height of 15 meters andits trunk a diameter of more than half a meter. The wood is light, soft and easy to work with and is often used for the manufacture of toys and several other useful objects. The tree is popular in reforestation because its fruits are food for wildlife, especially birds and monkeys. There is a species of small monkeys, the Sagüi, that loves to gnaw the bark of these trees because they like the resin that it has.

The leaves are composed, large and shiny. The flowers are small and not very eye-catching, being mainly visited by bees and flies. The black fruit measure about 1 centimeter, are rounded and shine. The Pau Pombo is recommended for use in reforestation of floodplains and river banks. New trees have rapid growth.


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Pau Sangue - Pterocarpus violaceus Vogel - This species belongs to the leguminous family FABACEAE. The name Pau Sangue in Portuguese means ?bloody wood? and was conferred in 1837 by Vogel, published in Linnaea (11: 416). This species has the highest occurrence area in the Atlantic Forest, from Bahia to Paraná.

The maximum height of the tree is about 14 meters, with a trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. The wood is light and not very resistant to rotting and termite attack. It is therefore recommended for use in interior finishings in civil construction. The tree is very attractive, especially due to its bright foliage and its small but very beautiful inflorescence. So it is ideal for landscaping.

The flowers are yellow in color with the center is darker. The fruit gives the impression that they have been squashed and are propagated by the wind. It is very difficult to remove the seeds from the fruit, which is also not necessary when you want to multiply the plants, because in this case, the whole fruit is used. Because it withstands the direct exposure of the sun's rays and multiplies easily, it becomes indispensable in reforestation.


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Pitomba - Talisia esculenta (St. Hill) Radik. - The Pitomba belongs to the SAPINDACEAE family or soapberry trees. The name of this species comes from indigenous natives in the Tupí language. It is found in large areas of Brazil, in the Tropical Rainforests of the Amazon and in the Atlantic Forest. It is particularly frequent in the Amazon and in the north of the state of Espírito Santo.

The Pitomba reaches a height of only 12 meters and a trunk diameter of up to 40 centimeters. Its wood is very heavy, however little resistant to rotting. It is great for use in indoor work. This tree is widely known for its edible and tasty fruit, which have a sour sweet taste, and can be consumed both as fruit or used for juices. This tree is also planted in many gardens and plantations for production of fruit, which are often to be found for sale in outdoor street markets.

The flowers are small and not very attractive, and are found in elongated blooms. On the outside the fruits are surrounded by a shell or dry solid skin. Inside, around the rounded seed, there is a covering of juicy pulp. As the fruit are very appreciated by birds, this tree is valuable in reforestation for recovery of degraded areas.


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Purga de Cavalo - Joannesia princeps Vell. - The Purga de Cavalo belongs to the EUPHORBIACEAE family. The species of this family produce a lactose juice that comes out of the trunk and branches in case of injury. This species is found widely, from the state of Pará to the state of São Paulo, being in greater quantity in the region of the Atlantic Forest.

This tree reaches a height of 20 meters and a trunk diameter of 60 centimeters. As the wood is particularly light, toothpicks, canoes and rafts are made from it. The seeds of this species, rich in oil, contain substances with medicinal effects, but when simply consumed, which can easily happen due to its pleasant aroma, leads to vomiting and diarrhea.

The leaves are shaped like fingers. This tree is good for use in reforestation, because the fruit are food for animals. However, it should be avoided for embellishment of cities, because its hard and heavy fruit can cause accidents when they fall. In addition, the wind can break the branches of the canopy easily. The new plants grow rapidly, reaching heights of up to 6 meters within two years.


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Putumujú - Centrolobium microchaete (Mart. ex. Benth.) Lima - The Putumujú tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE) and is found mainly in eastern Brazil, in the coastal Atlantic Forest region from the state of Pernambuco in the northeast to the state of Santa Catarina in the south.

This tree can reach a height of up to 30 meters and trunk diameter of 80 centimeters. The wood is heavy, hard, extremely durable, attractive and easy to work with. It is suitable for the manufacture of luxury furniture, shipbuilding and carpentry work in general. It is suitable for external use, such as poles, posts, staes and railway sleepers. The tree is also very beautiful, especially the flower, and is therefore used for tree-planting in cities. This tree has the disadvantage that its prickly fruits are widely spread by the wind, which can cause accidents.

The large, shiny leaves are composed. Its flowers are yellow and are in clusters. The fruits are winged and in the region of the seeds provided with thorns. Young plants have rapid growth, reaching heights of up to 4 or 5 meters in just two years. Due to this rapid growth characteristic, this tree is valuable in reforestation for the recovery of degraded areas.


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Sabiá - Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. - The Sabiá belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). It received the scientific name in 1841 by Bentham, published in the Journal of Botany. The region of greatest occurrence of this small tree is the Northeast of Brazil, mainly in the Caatinga. The Caatinga is an interior landscape known for its extreme aridity. However, it is currently found in several regions of the country, where it was introduced.

Usually this spiny tree is small, rarely exceeding 8 meters in height, with trunk diameter of up to 30 centimeters. The wood is heavy, hard and very durable. It is suitable for external use, such as poles, posts, stakes and railway sleepers. This tree is planted in large quantities somas to be able to harvest its timber. It can also be used as a hedge, forming an impenetrable wall. Its dry leaves feed cattle in the dry season.

Its bark has small spines that disappear with age, but the branches are spiny. The flowers are white and very small, with a diameter of 0.5 to 0.7 millimeters. The flowers are pollinated by bees. Because the tree supports direct sunlight and is widely adapted to dry climates, it is suitable as a pioneer for reforestation.


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Sabonete - Sapindus saponaria L. - This species belongs to the SAPINDACEAE family. The word sabonete means soap in Portuguese but was given its scientific name in 1753 by Linné in his work "Species Plantarum". The name in Latin also makes reference to soap, because the fruit contain saponina from which clothes can be washed. This species is found mainly in the Amazon region, but also in other forest formations, such as in the Atlantic Forest.

The Sabonete can reach a height of up to 9 meters and a trunk diameter of 40 cm. The wood has low natural durability. It is used both for the manufacture of toys and for boxes in general. Its seeds are used for crafts, for example, in making rattles because they are perfectly round, hard and black. Because the whole tree, with its perennial canopy is very attractive, it is one of the those most often used for tree-planting in cities.

The white flowers are aromatic, very small and are little grouped and raised in blooms. The fruit are eaten by bats. To get the seeds, it is best to harvest the fruit directly from the tree. Young plants have moderate growth, reaching heights of up to 2.5 meters after two years.


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Sibipiruna - Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The name Sibipiruna comes from Tupí, an indigenous language of Brazil. It is mainly found in the Atlantic Forest, apparently occurring also in the Pantanal, the largest marshy territory in the West of Brazil. Erroneously, Brazilians usually believe that this species is Pau Brazil.

The Sibipiruna reaches a height of 16 meters and with a trunk diameter of up to 40 centimeters. Its wood is moderately heavy and hard, being used for various constructions. The tree looks beautiful, and is often used for tree-planting in cities. It has an exuberant flowering.

The leaves are doubly composed and the small leaves are indeed tiny. Its flowers are yellow and very eye-catching. The fruit are dried pods. Young plants grow rapidly and after two years, reach heights of up to 3 meters. This tree species must be used in reforestation for recovery of degraded areas.


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Sucupira - Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The name Sucupira comes from the indigenous language Tupí. This species received its scientific name in 1824 from Kunth in the book "Nova Genera et Species Plantarum" (fourth ed). This species is found in several forest formations in Brazil.

The Sucupira reaches a height of 16 meters and a trunk diameter of up to 50 centimeters. The wood is valuable because it is heavy, very beautiful and of great durability. It is used for the manufacture of various objects, such as floors and doors. As the tree shows good growth and is particularly very beautiful when in blossom, it is often used in landscaping.

It blooms when it is practically stripped of leaves, which makes the flowering more luxuriant. The flowers are typically lilac in color and are found in non-grouped erect blooms. The fruit are dried pods. Young plants grow quickly, reaching a height of up to 3 meters after two years. Its low water and nutrients requirements makes it especially important in reforestation for recovery of degraded areas.


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Sucupira-Amarela - Sweetia fruticosa Spreng. - This tree species belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The yellow Sucupira received its scientific name in 1825 from Sprengel, published in the sixteenth volume of the book Systema Vegetabilium. The species is found in several forest formations in Brazil, mainly in the Atlantic Forest.

This tree reaches a height of up to 18 meters and trunk diameter of 60 centimeters. Its wood is heavy, hard and very sturdy. It is suitable for joinery and also for external use, such as poles, posts, stakes and railway sleepers. Thanks to its delicate leaves and its very open crown, this tree is very attractiveand great for tree-planting in cities.

The flowers are mostly in non-clustered and erect blooms. The fruit are dried and winged pods. New plants develop slowly reaching about 1.5 meters in height after two years but in spite of this, should be used for reforestation for permanent preservation because it is a species typical of the Atlantic Forest.


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Timbaúva - Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong - The Timbaúva belongs to the leguminous MIMOSACEAE family. It was the indigenous people in the Tupi language that gave the name to this tree species, which means foam tree. Its fruit are much appreciated by wild animals. The species is found in several forest formations in Brazil.

It reaches a height of up to 35 meters and can reach a trunk diameter of more than 1.5 meters. Together with other large trees, it forms the forest canopy. The wood is light and soft to the cut. From the whole trunks canoes can be built. It is also used in the manufacture of furniture and for boxes in general. It has a large, leafy canopy, shaped like an umbrella, providing great shade.

In the dry season this tree loses its leaves. The flowers are brush-shaped and are in small blooms. The fruit contain saponin, a natural soap. The fruit also have a strange shape that remind one of ears, acquiring Brazilian names in this sense, such as Monkey's Ear. It does not produce seeds every year. The tree is interesting for reforestation because it grows very rapidly while young.


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Trapiá - Crataeva tapia L. - The Trapiá belongs to the CAPARIDACEAE family. This tree species was given its Brazilian name by the Indians in the Tupi language and its scientific name by Linné in the year 1753 in his famous work "Species Plantarum". In Brazil, this species is found in the Atlantic Forest, from the state of Pernambuco to São Paulo, as well as in the Pantanal.

This tree reaches a height of up to 12 meters and a trunk diameter of 45 cm. Its wood is not very resistant and usually splits during drying. It has little commercial use. The fruit are edible, being appreciated both by humans in the form of juice, as well as by wild fauna. Several species of birds, animals and fish feed on the fruit, dispersing their seeds.

In the dry season, the tree loses its bright green leaves. They are trifoliolate and sharply pointy. The flowers are white and are in blooms. The fruit are round and yellow when ripe, containing a white pulp with a sweet taste. Because it has edible fruit, this tree is valuable in reforestation for recovery of degraded areas.


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Vinhático - Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. - The Vinhático belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The tree grows in the Atlantic Forest from the state of Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro. It can also be found in the Cerrado. This tree species is threatened with extinction as a result of deforestation and commercial exploitation of its wood.

This tree reaches a height of up to 30 meters and has a trunk diameter of 70 centimeters. Together with other large trees, it forms the forest canopy. Its wood is light, hard and very durable. It is used in civil construction for various purposes, and for the manufacture of luxury furniture, veneer wood and wine barrels. The tree is lush and so is suitable for landscaping.

The leaves are composed and very thin, and are lighter at the bottom. The white to pink color flowers are very small and are grouped in blooms. The fruit are dried pods. Annually this tree produces a relatively small amount of viable seeds. After two years of growth the plants reach about 3 meters in height. Because it is threatened with extinction, this species must be included in reforestation projects for recovery of degraded areas.


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Sapucaia - Lecythis pisonis Camb. - The Sapucaia belongs to the LECYTHIDACEAE family. Most members of this family have hard and stable pods with an authentic cap. Within them are the seeds. Brazil nuts are the best known. The region where this species is found is the Atlantic Forest, most frequently in southern Bahia and Espírito Santo.

This species reaches a height of up to 30 meters, with a trunk diameter of 90 centimeters. The wood is moderately heavy, hard and has a long life. It is suitable for joinery and also for external use, such as poles, posts, stakes and railway sleepers. The seeds are edible and very aromatic, because of which they are consumed by both man and fauna. The large pods are used as ornaments and containers in rural areas.

The leaves when new, are pink to lilac. The flowers are large, lilac in color and grouped in blooms. The flowering is found in the same period in which the new leaves appear, leaving the whole canopy with lilac coloration. Because it has edible fruit, this tree is valuable in reforestation for recovery of degraded areas.


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Ipê Amarelo (ser.) - Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) Nich. - This tree species belongs to the BIGNONIACEAE family. In Brazil the species are roughly differentiated by their color. In this species the flowers are yellow and trumpet-shaped. When the trees are in bloom, they shine completely in shades of yellow, because flowering is found completely in the dry season when the trees have only a few leaves. This species is found a lot in the Amazon and sparsely in the Atlantic Forest.

The tree reaches a height of up to 20 meters and a trunk diameter of 80 centimeters. The wood is heavy, very hard, difficult to saw and has a very long life. The wood is used in both construction and shipbuilding. With its splendor of abundant flowers, the species is preferably planted in gardens.

The leaves are subdivided like the palm of a hand, that is, they consist of five small leaves. Their yellow and large flowers are typically visited by bees. The fruit are longitudinal and dry and, when ripe, release a large amount of small winged seeds. The plants have moderate growth.


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Matataúba - Didymopanax morototoni (Aublet) Sandw. - The Matataúba belongs to the ARALIACEAE family. This species usually has a long and straight trunk. When adult, the tree has a branched trunk in the area of the canopy. The tree is found in the Amazon Forest and also in the Atlantic Forest. It is frequently found in areas at the beginning of natural recovery of vegetation.

The tree reaches a height of up to 30 meters and a trunk diameter of 90 cm. Its wood is light, easy to cut and of low durability. It is used for various purposes in carpentry, for example, in the manufacture of matchsticks, pencils, toys and broomsticks. Due to its elegant shape, it can also be used for landscaping purposes.

Its leaves have the shape of fingers of the human hand and are very large, with rusty hairs on the bottom page. Its flowers, very small and in large blooms are spaced out in the tree canopy, and are visited by different insects. It produces large quantities of small fruit annually that are consumed by wild birds. It grows easily in new spaces with intense light. Thanks to these qualities, it is extremely important for regeneration of forests, to which it contributes to its rapid growth.


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Sete Capotes - Machaerium aculeatum Raddi - The Sete Capotes belongs to the leguminous family (FABACEAE). The characteristic dehiscence of its bark explains its name. The bark peels off in blades and its intense green colored leaves give the tree great beauty. It is found in various forest formations, from the state of Pernambuco to São Paulo.

This spiny tree is small, reaching a maximum height of 12 meters and a trunk with a diameter of up to 40 centimeters. Its thorns are already present in young plants. Its wood is moderately heavy, easy to cut and of low durability. It can be used for various purposes, mainly in the manufacture of objects of low durability.

The flowers are light purple in color and cover almost the entire tree during flowering, making it really ornamental. The fruit is a dried pod. Because it is a pioneer and rather rustic species, it is recommended for reforestation of degraded areas. After two years of growth the plants reach about 3 meters in height.


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Licuri - Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc. - The Licuri is a palm tree and belongs to the ARECACEAE family. Its fruit, also known as coquinhos or small coconuts, have edible almonds and are much appreciated by local populations. It served in the past as an important source of food for rural dwellers during prolonged droughts in northeastern Brazil. This palm tree is found from the state of Pernambuco to Bahia, in the Atlantic Forest, as well as in the Caatinga, in an arid environment.

 It reaches a height of only 10 meters and has a very unique appearance, produced mainly by older leaves that remain in the palm tree. The wood has no commercial value and is used only in rustic constructions. The leaves are used in making fans, hats and brooms. It is possible to extract a wax by scraping the leaves. The fruit produce oil and its interior is edible. Due to its unique appearance, the palm tree is much used in landscaping.

The leaves are about 3 meters in length and are arranged in a spiral. Each year produces a large amount of fruit that are scattered by different wild animals. It can take up to a year until the seedlings germinate. The development of young plants is slow.


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Bapeba - Denominação científica Pouteria venosa (Mart.) Baehni - This tree species belongs to the family SAPOTACEAE. It has an erect and cylindrical trunk, with a dense and rounded crown. In Brazil, it is found in the Amazonian and Atlantic Forests, on the southeastern coast, between the states of Bahia and Santa Catarina. It is also found in Venezuela and the Guyanas.

The Bapeba is lactescent and can reach a height of up to 20 meters and a trunk diameter of 60 centimeters. Its wood is heavy, hard, resistant and has long durability. It is used in civil construction and also suitable for external use, such as poles, posts, stakes and railway sleepers.

The leaves are simple, alternate spirals, chartaceous or papery and concentrated at the ends of the branches. Its fruit have fleshy and amylaceous or starchy pulp, containing from 1 to 3 seeds. They are edible and highly sought after by birds and rodents. The tree produces a moderate amount of seeds annually. Because it has edible fruits, this tree is valuable in reforestation for the recovery of degraded areas


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Carrapeta - Denominação científica Trichilia hirta L. - This tree species belongs to the MELIACEAE family. This species received its current scientific name by Linné in "Flora Brasiliensis". It is found in several states of Brazil and in various forest formations. This tree is recommended for planting in degraded areas and permanent preservation for being rustic and pioneering.

The tree reaches a height of up to 14 meters and trunk diameter of 30 centimeters. Its wood is light, easy to work and durable. suitable for external works, and for joinery and carpentry. The plant is quite ornamental because of its small size and bright leaves.

The leaves of this tree are composed approximately 30 centimeters in length and the ridges are rough. The flowers are white and occur in clusters. The fruits are consumed by several species of wild birds. The seeds are widely disseminated by them. The growth of new plants in the field is considered moderate.


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Guabiroba - Denominação científica Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg - The Guabiroba belongs to the MYRTACEAE family. This species was given its current scientific name by Berg in "Flora Brasiliensis". In Brazil, it is found in several states and in several forest formations, but more frequently in the states of the East and South. It is also found in several other countries of South America.

The tree reaches a height of up to 20 meters and trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. Its wood is moderately heavy, sturdy and of good durability. It is intended for various uses, amongst others in the manufacture of tool cables. The fruit are edible and tasty. They have high vitamin content and can be consumed in natura, pure, or in the manufacture of liqueurs, juices and ice creams. This species is very cultivated in domestic orchards.

The leaves of this tree are simple, membranous, shiny and with ridges imprinted on the upper face and protruding on the underside. The flowers are solitary and white in color. Growth of new plants is slow. This species is highly recommended for planting in degraded areas due to the abundant production of edible fruits for the avifauna.


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Ipê Bóia - Denominação científica Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell). Schum. - This tree species belongs to the BIGNONIACEAE family. The Ipê Bóia is not a tree with flowering as luxuriant as the other species of this family. In Brazil it is found in various plant formations. In the state of Bahia it is usually found in the Atlantic Forest.

The tree reaches a height of up to 15 meters and trunk diameter of 50 centimeters. The wood is light and of low natural durability, suitable for internal construction works. It is also used in shipbuilding. The plant is very ornamental because of its foliage, its flowering and the canopy with hanging branches.

The leaves are subdivided like the palm of a hand, that is, they consist of five small leaves. The flowers are whitish colored with pink stripes on the inside and trumpet-shaped. The fruit are longitudinal and dry and, when ripe, release a large amount of small winged seeds. It produces large quantities of seeds annually. It is not demanding on soils and grows fast, and is therefore recommended for planting in degraded areas and permanent preservation.


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Jitaí-Preto - Denominação científica Dialium guianense (Aublet) Sandw. - This tree species belongs to the family of pulses (CAESALPINIACEAE). It comes from the Brazilian, Atlantic, Mata Atlantica rainforest and also appears in the Amazon region. In the Brazilian language, this tree has over 20 different names, though is most readily known as Jitaí-Preto.

The timber is very heavy and is used in shipbuilding. This tree species can be used very effectively in the reforestation of run-down areas. The fruit is edible and serves as a source of food for birds. The tree is not very demanding in terms of soil quality, though it can often be found on the banks of rivers. The tree reaches a height of up to 30 metres and a trunk diameter of up to 90 centimetres. The leaves are joined together. The flowers are small and green. The fruit is drupaceous, is approximately 2 centimetres long and contains a very hard stone. The fruit is spread by birds and monkeys.

To recover the seeds, the ripe fruit should be picked straight from the tree. The seeds are sown in sandy, loamy soil and watered twice a day. After 15-20 days, the seedlings appear.


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Mulungu - Denominação científica Erythrina velutina Willd. - This tree species belongs to the legume family (FABACEAE). In Brazil, it is found from the State of Ceará to São Paulo, in various forest formations. This small tree is most frequently found at the side of rivers in the Caatinga. The Caatinga is an inland landscape known for its extreme aridity.

The tree is prickly and reaches a height of up to 12 meters and trunk diameter of 70 centimeters. The wood is light, soft and not very resistant. It is used in the manufacture of clogs, toys and boxes. The Mulungu reproduces easily through plant cuttings and is therefore used as a growing hedge. Due to the beauty of its flowers, this species is widely used in landscaping and gardening projects.

 The leaves are composed trifoliolate and supported by a petiole of about 6 to 14 centimeters. The flowers are red in color, which makes it a very ornamental plant when in bloom as it blooms totally stripped of foliage. Its flowers are visited by birds to feed on its nectar. It is reproduced by both seeds and cuttings. Its growth is rapid, being able to reach 3 meters of height at two years of age.


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Murici - Denominação científica Byrsonima stipulacea A. Juss - This tree species belongs to the family MALPIGHIACEAE. In Brazil, it is traditionally found in the Atlantic Forest, from the state of Bahia to São Paulo. The Murici usually has a dense pyramidal crown and straight trunk, with a thin bark and not very rough.

The Murici can reach a height of up to 20 meters and a trunk diameter of 70 centimeters. Its wood is moderately heavy and of low durability. In addition, it can warp during drying. It is used for internal use in construction. It is occasionally used in furniture manufacturing. The fruit are edible and highly sought after by wild birds.

The leaves are wrinkly and dry, fuzzy on the upper surface of the new leaves and rust colored and fuzzy on the lower face. The young branches are also rust colored and fuzzy. The flowers are yellow in color. Its fruit is a rounded drupe of juicy, sweet pulp containing a globular seed. It is a highly recommended species for reforestation of degraded areas due to the abundant production of edible fruit for wild birds.